The shoot system of a plant || Morphology of a plant || Neettyari

The Shoot system of a plant and a Morphology of a plant

The Shoot System of a plant


The shoot generally an above ground, aerial, erect, ascending axis of the plant body which develops from the plumule of the embryo. It is usually postively phototrophic. It is differentiated into nodes and internodes and bear leaves, branches and flowers. The region of the stem where leaves are born are called nodes, whereas the portions between two nodes are called internodes. In some plant the stem is weak and it creeps on the ground or climbs over a support.


Characteristics of the Stem

Some distinctive features of the stems are as follows:-

1) The stem is ascending portion of the plant and is the direct prolongation of the plumule.

2) The young stem is green and thus carries  photosynthesis.

3) It bears both vegetative and floral buds, the former for vegetative growth and the latter for reproduction. It ends in a terminal bud.

4) It bears mostly multicellular hairs of various  kinds which are scattered over the whole surface.

5) It has distinct nodes and internodes.

6) It is postively phototrophic.

7) In reproduction phase of the plant, the stem bears flowers and fruits.

8) In the stem branches arise exogenously.



Functions of Stem

The stem carries out a veriety of functions:-

1) It provides support for the main body of the plant.

2) It support leaves in such position so that they can capture maximum of sunlight and flowers and fruits in positions to maximise pollination and aid seed dispersal.

3) It is flexible and able to withstand the pulling and bending forces exerted by the wind and yet have the strength to remain upright.

4) It allows the transport of water, sugars and other dissolved substances to the various part of the plant.

5) In some plants, stem from the means by which they store food for overwintering.

6) In some plants stems form adventitious roots.

7) It helps in vegetative multiplication in some plants.

8) In plants, like cactus, the stem forms the main photosynthetic organisms and also stores water. Here the leaves are reduced to spine to cut down water loss.

Also read


Difference between Stem and Root


Difference between Stem and Root

  • Stems have nodes and internodes where Roots have no nodes and internodes.
  • Stem is the ascending of the plant and developed from the plumule where as Root is the descending axis of the plant and developed from the radicle.
  • The stem bears axillary and terminal buds where Roots roots does not bear buds.
  • The young stem is green in colour where as non-green.
  • The stem tip is not protected by root cap where Roots tip is protected by root cap.

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